Peptides are also known by the name of small proteins, as molecular composition of protein as well as of peptides are same. These are synthesized by amino acids. There are all 20 amino acids; all of them carry carboxylic acidic group and amine as basic group. These are terminal groups thus act as the reacting sites for the groups of another amino acids. Before stepping in to the entire reaction let us have a glance over the structure of amino acids. Amino acids are bio molecules.
These have central carbon atom which is linked to the carboxylic group by covalent bond, other side amine group is attached and on the third side hydrogen atom is there. This is the basic structure of all the amino acids, now we will read about what is peptide bond? And how it is formed? Peptide bond is the polymer chain of near about 50 amino acids in which amino acids act as the monomer units. As we have already read that amino acids have two reacting sites one is basic and other is acidic thus these are bipolar in nature. Carboxylic site of one amino acid reacts with the amine site of the other amino acids thus forming peptide bond. This is also known as the amide bond. Below I am illustrating the structure of the peptide bond.
Entire process of synthesis of amide bond or peptide bond contains release of water molecule, thus it is a condensation process. This is all about what is peptide bond? Due to covalent bond present in the molecule rotation around the bond is restricted thus it has planer structure. Peptides have proven their existence in the clinical field eloquently. It is proved to be very safe and assessable. It is easily decomposed in the body. More over metabolic rate of the molecule is also high thus its activity in the body is very low.
Peptide plays very important role in the digestive system; it acts as enzyme and degrades the complex molecule. These are integral part of the endocrine system thus help in maintain and regulating the body functions. Peptides are compositions of the immune system. During digestion protein molecules degraded in to amino acids and, some them act as hormones, leftover act as the digestive enzymes and also aids to the immune system of the body. This is all about the peptides.